Neutrinos send wireless message through the Earth: The researchers used Fermilab's Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam to fire pulses containing trillions of neutrinos at the MINERvA detector, which is underground so as to shield it from cosmic rays, charged particles that rain down on Earth from space. The team encoded the word "neutrino" using a standard binary communications code that turns letters into strings of zeros and ones. These binary digits were transmitted using the presence of a pulse to stand for "1" and the absence to stand for "0".
The one-word message consisted of 25 pulses separated by a space of just over two seconds and was repeated around 3500 times over a span of 142 minutes, with an average of just 0.81 neutrinos detected for each pulse. That corresponds to a transmission rate of 0.1 bits per second, with an error rate of 1 per cent.