Paradoxical Decision-Making Explained By Quantum Theory - Technology Review: At the heart of the Ellsberg paradox are two different kinds of uncertainties. The first is a probability: the chance of picking a red ball versus picking a non-red ball, which we are told is 1/3. The second is an ambiguity: the chance of the non-red ball being black or yellow which is entirely uncertain.
Conventional decision theory cannot easily handle both types of uncertainty. But various researchers in recent years have pointed out that quantum theory can cope with with both types and what's more, can accurately model the patterns of answers that humans come up with.